Thursday, November 8, 2007

US Bishops on Politics - Part II

Below is the text of Part II of the Bishops' document on Faithful Citizenship, with commentary.
My commentary on Part I can be found here.

Again I issue this warning- this post will be long. Remember, that this is a draft. A well-done draft, but a draft nonetheless. Also, the Bishops didn't ask for my commentary, I just offer it for the readers.

(my emphasis added in italics - with my commentary in brackets[] )

Part II begins as follows:

Politics is about values and issues as well as candidates and officeholders. In this brief summary, we bishops call attention to issues with significant moral dimensions that should be carefully considered in each campaign and as policy decisions are made in the years to come. As the descriptions below indicate, some issues involve principles that can never be violated, such as the fundamental right to life [never means never - pro-choice politicians]. Others reflect our judgment about the best way to apply Catholic principles to policy issues [notice a differentiation of kind, not degree]. No summary could fully reflect the depth and details of the positions taken through the work of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) [because there would be no trees left if all the Bishops got to put their political opinions in this]. While people of good will may sometimes choose different ways to apply and act on some of our principles, Catholics cannot ignore their inescapable moral challenges or simply dismiss the Church’s guidance or policy directions that flow from these principles. For a more complete review of these policy directions and their moral foundations, see the statements listed at the end of this document.

The specific policies below are bolded in the document, but I removed the bolding for my commentary. This section gets quite long, but starts with the life issues:

Our 1998 statement Living the Gospel of Life declares, “Abortion and euthanasia have become preeminent threats to human life and dignity because they directly attack life itself, the most fundamental good and the condition for all others” (no. 5). Abortion, the deliberate killing of a human being before birth, is never morally acceptable and must always be opposed. Cloning and destruction of human embryos for research or even for potential cures are always wrong. The purposeful taking of human life by assisted suicide and euthanasia is not an act of mercy, but an unjustifiable assault on human life. Genocide, torture, and the intentional targeting of noncombatants in war or terrorist attacks are always wrong. [Notice the strong language - never, oppose, always wrong, unjustifiable assault, etc.]

Laws that legitimize any of these practices are profoundly unjust and immoral. Our Conference supports laws and policies to protect human life to the maximum degree possible, including constitutional protection for the unborn and legislative efforts to end abortion and euthanasia, as well as laws and programs that promote childbirth and adoption over abortion and that provide assistance to pregnant women and children.[The Bishops do actually care for the women, contradicting those who accuse pro-lifers of only caring about the babies.] The USCCB calls for greater assistance for those who are sick and dying, through health care coverage for all and effective and compassionate palliative care. We recognize that addressing this complex issue effectively will require collaborative efforts between the public and private sectors and across party lines. Policies and decisions regarding biotechnology and human experimentation should respect the inherent dignity of human life from its very beginning, regardless of the circumstances of its origin. Respect for human life and dignity is also the foundation for essential efforts to address and overcome the hunger, disease, poverty, and violence that take the lives of so many innocent people.

Next we get into war:

Catholics must also work to avoid war and to promote peace. Nations should protect the right to life by finding more effective ways to prevent conflicts, to resolve them by peaceful means, and to promote reconstruction and reconciliation in the wake of conflicts. Nations have a right and obligation to defend human life and the common good against terrorism, aggression, and similar threats.[while there is a right for the state to defend itself, there are also just war criteria that have to be met for a war to be morally just] This duty demands effective responses to terror, moral assessment of and restraint in the means used, respect for ethical limits on the use of force, a focus on the roots of terror, and fair distribution of the burdens of responding to terror. The Church has raised serious moral concerns about preemptive or preventive use of military force. [but has not finished the discussion] Our Church also recognizes the moral right of military personnel to conscientious objection to a particular war or military procedure.

I have left out another paragraph about war. The next paragraph is on the death penalty:

Society has a duty to defend life against violence and to reach out to victims of crime. Yet our nation’s increasing reliance on the death penalty cannot be justified. Because we have other ways to protect society that are more respectful of human life, the USCCB supports efforts to end the use of the death penalty and, in the meantime, to restrain its use through broader use of DNA evidence, access to effective counsel, and efforts to address unfairness and injustice related to application of the death penalty. [this is very strong language, much stronger than the Catechism]

Family life is next:

The family is the basic cell of human society. The role, responsibilities, and needs of families should be central national priorities. Marriage must be defined, recognized, and protected as a lifelong commitment between a man and a woman, and as the source of the next generation and the protective haven for children. Policies on taxes, work, divorce, immigration, and welfare should help families stay together and should reward responsibility and sacrifice for children. Wages should allow workers to support their families, and public assistance should be available to help poor families to live in dignity.[not quite sure how we define this] Such assistance should be provided in a manner that promotes eventual financial autonomy.[this is a nice touch]

Children are to be valued, protected, and nurtured. As a Church, we affirm our commitment to the protection and well-being of children in our own institutions and in all of society.

Parents—the first and most important educators—have a fundamental right to choose the education best suited to the needs of their children, including public, private, and religious schools. Government, through such means as tax credits and publicly funded scholarships, should help provide resources for parents, especially those of modest means, to exercise this basic right without discrimination. Students in all educational settings should have opportunities for moral and character formation. [school choice is a right of parents that is rarely voiced, I am glad they did so here]

Families and values are shaped by all forms of media—print, broadcast, and Internet. To protect children and families, responsible regulation is needed that respects freedom of speech yet also addresses policies that have lowered standards, permitted increasingly offensive material, and reduced opportunities for non-commercial religious programming.

Regulation should limit concentration of media control, resist management that is primarily focused on profit, and encourage a variety of program sources, including religious programming. [I don't quite understand what they are arguing for here] TV rating systems and appropriate technology can assist parents in supervising what their children view.

The Internet offers both great benefits and significant problems. The benefits should be available to all students regardless of income. Because access to pornographic and violent material is becoming easier, vigorous enforcement of existing obscenity and child pornography laws is necessary, as well as technology that assists parents, schools, and libraries in blocking unwanted or undesirable materials. [education about how harmful porn is, treatment for addiction and more also needs to come from the Church]

Now for Social Justice:

Economic decisions and institutions should be assessed according to whether they protect or undermine the dignity of the human person.[Exactly. We need to be careful of uncritically supporting a market that doesn't take the human person into consideration] Social and economic policies should foster the creation of jobs for all who can work with decent working conditions and just wages. Barriers to equal pay and employment for women and those facing unjust discrimination must be overcome. Catholic social teaching supports the right of workers to choose whether to organize, join a union, and bargain collectively, and to exercise these rights without reprisal. It also affirms economic freedom, initiative, and the right to private property. [*cough* - imminent domain stupidity - *cough*] Workers, owners, employers, and unions should work together to create decent jobs, build a more just economy, and advance the common good.

Welfare policy should reduce poverty and dependency, strengthen family life, and help families leave poverty through work, training, and assistance with child care, health care, housing, and transportation.[in other words, don't just throw money into a broken welfare system] It should also provide a safety net for those who cannot work. Improving the Earned Income Tax Credit and child tax credits, available as refunds to families in greatest need, will help lift low-income families out of poverty.[maybe]

Faith-based groups deserve recognition and support, not as a substitute for government, but as responsive, effective partners, especially in the poorest communities and countries. [subsidiarity] The USCCB actively supports conscience clauses, opposes any effort to undermine the ability of faith-based groups to preserve their identity and integrity as partners with government, and is committed to protecting long-standing civil rights and other protections for both religious groups and the people they serve. Government bodies should not require Catholic institutions to compromise their moral convictions to participate in government health or human service programs.[amen]

Social Security should provide adequate, continuing, and reliable income in an equitable manner for low- and average-wage workers and their families when these workers retire or become disabled, and for the survivors when a wage-earner dies.[how we define "low" and "average" makes a big difference in policy here]

Affordable and accessible health care is an essential safeguard of human life and a fundamental human right. With more than 47 million Americans lacking health care coverage, it is also an urgent national priority. Reform of the nation’s health care system needs to be rooted in values that respect human dignity, protect human life, and meet the needs of the poor and uninsured, especially born and unborn children, pregnant women, immigrants, and other vulnerable populations.[there is no easy or quick fix here. The issue of socialization is a lightening rod, esp. when our system is still the best in the world] Religious groups should be able to provide health care without compromising their religious convictions.[esp. in the contraception/sterilization areas in conjunction with other attacks on human dignity] The USCCB supports measures to strengthen Medicare and Medicaid. Our Conference also advocates effective, compassionate care that reflects Catholic moral values for those suffering from HIV/AIDS and those coping with addictions.

The lack of safe, affordable housing requires a renewed commitment to increase the supply of quality housing and to preserve, maintain, and improve existing housing through public/private partnerships, especially with religious groups and community organizations.[subsidiarity again] The USCCB continues to oppose unjust housing discrimination and to support measures to meet the credit needs of low-income and minority communities.

A first priority for agriculture policy should be food security for all. Because no one should face hunger in a land of plenty, Food Stamps, the Special Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), and other nutrition programs need to be strong and effective.[preferential option for the poor isn't optional - but not every program is a fulfillment of it] Farmers and farm workers who grow, harvest, and process food deserve a decent return for their labor, with safe and just working conditions and adequate housing. Supporting rural communities sustains a way of life that enriches our nation. Careful stewardship of the Earth and its natural resources demands policies that support sustainable agriculture as vital elements of agricultural policy.

The Gospel mandate to “welcome the stranger” requires Catholics to care for and stand with immigrants, both documented and undocumented, including immigrant children. Comprehensive reform is urgently necessary to fix a broken immigration system and should include a temporary work program with worker protections and a path to permanent residency; family reunification policies; a broad and fair legalization program; access to legal protections, including due process and public benefits; refuge for those fleeing persecution and exploitation; and policies to address the root causes of migration. The right and responsibility of nations to control their borders and to maintain the rule of law should be recognized. [seems they have contradictory statements here - I am certainly open to being corrected though]

All persons have a right to receive a quality education. Young people, including those who are poor and those with disabilities, need to have the opportunity to develop intellectually, morally, spiritually, and physically, allowing them to become good citizens who make socially and morally responsible decisions. This requires parental choice in education. It also requires educational institutions to have orderly, just, respectful, and non-violent environments where adequate professional and material resources are available. The USCCB strongly supports adequate funding, including scholarships, tax credits, and other means, to educate all persons no matter what their personal condition or what school they attend—public, private, or religious. All teachers and administrators deserve salaries and benefits that reflect principles of economic justice, as well as access to resources necessary for teachers to prepare for their important tasks. Services aimed at improving education—especially for those most at risk—that are available to students and teachers in public schools should also be available to students and teachers in private and religious schools as a matter of justice. [don't get me started about the broken public education system. Of course most government policies in this area generally include testing more and throwing more money into the drain, not real reform]

Promoting moral responsibility and effective responses to violent crime, curbing violence in media, supporting reasonable restrictions on access to assault weapons and handguns, and opposing the use of the death penalty are particularly important in light of a growing “culture of violence.” An ethic of responsibility, rehabilitation, and restoration should be a foundation for the reform of our broken criminal justice system. A remedial, rather than a strictly punitive, approach to offenders should be developed. [we certainly do have the "lock 'em up and throw away the key" mentality. We need to seek some different policies about our justice system including rehabilitation]

It is important for our society to continue to combat discrimination based on sex, race, ethnicity, disabling condition, religion, or age, as these are grave injustices and affronts to human dignity. Where the effects of past discrimination persist, society has the obligation to take positive steps to overcome the legacy of injustice, including vigorous action to remove barriers to education and equal employment for women and minorities.

Care for the Earth and for the environment is a moral issue. Protecting the land, water, and the air we share is a religious duty of stewardship and reflects our responsibility to born and unborn children, who are most vulnerable to environmental assault. Effective initiatives are required for energy conservation and the development of alternate, renewable, and clean-energy resources. Our Conference offers a distinctive call to seriously address global climate change, focusing on the virtue of prudence, pursuit of the common good, and the impact on the poor, particularly on vulnerable workers and the poorest nations. The United States should lead in contributing to the sustainable development of poorer nations and promoting greater justice in sharing the burden of environmental blight, neglect, and recovery. [I am glad they balanced this section well. They didn't over-react as many have. We can't just ignore those who will be most effected by radical environmental policies.]

Global Solidarity next:

A more just world will likely be a more peaceful world, a world less vulnerable to terrorism and other violence. The United States has the responsibility to take the lead in addressing the scandal of poverty and underdevelopment. Our nation should help to humanize globalization, addressing its negative consequences and spreading its benefits, especially among the world’s poor. The United States also has a unique opportunity to use its power in partnership with others to build a more just and peaceful world. [Very true. As the only real super-power we are expected to take the lead. To whom much is given...]

  • The United States should take a leading role in helping to alleviate global poverty through substantially increased development aid for the poorest countries, more equitable trade policies, and continuing efforts to relieve the crushing burdens of debt and disease. Our nation’s efforts to reduce poverty should not be associated with demeaning and sometimes coercive population control programs; instead, these efforts should focus on working with the poor to help them build a future of hope and opportunity for themselves and their children. [In other words, not how the UN wants to do things]
  • U.S. policy should promote religious liberty and other basic human rights. The use of torture must be rejected as fundamentally incompatible with the dignity of the human person and ultimately counterproductive in the effort to combat terrorism. [Torture cannot be justified. We cannot do evil for a good result]
  • The United States should provide political and financial support for beneficial United Nations programs and reforms, for other international bodies, and for international law, so that together these institutions may become more responsible and responsive agents for addressing global problems. [? The USA already supplies the majority of funding to the UN]
  • Asylum should be afforded to refugees who hold a well-founded fear of persecution in their homelands. Our country should support protection for persons fleeing persecution through safe haven in other countries, including the United States, especially for unaccompanied children, women, victims of human trafficking, and religious minorities.
  • Our country should be a leader—in collaboration with the international community—in addressing regional conflicts in the Middle East, the Balkans, the Congo, Sudan, Colombia, and West Africa. [How we address them is still a big question]
  • Leadership on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an especially urgent priority. The United States should actively pursue comprehensive negotiations leading to a just and peaceful resolution that respects the legitimate claims and aspirations of both Israelis and Palestinians, ensuring security for Israel, a viable state for Palestinians, and peace in the region.
  • While the Holy See and our Conference have raised serious moral questions regarding war with Iraq, we bishops call on our country to work with the international community to seek a “responsible transition” in Iraq and to address the human consequences of war in Iraq and Afghanistan. [raising questions is the easy part.]
  • Defending human life, building peace, combating poverty and despair, and protecting freedom and human rights are not only moral imperatives—they are wise national priorities that will make our nation and world safer.
Part III coming later today.

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